Excerpts from Light Pollution Handbook 

2004, 943 p., Hardcover
ISBN: 1-4020-2665-X

Published by Springer, P.O. Box 17
3300 AA Dordrecht , The Netherlands
Light Pollution Handbook
by Kohei Narisada and Duco Schreuder

Reviewed by Chuck Bueter at review.htm.

Excerpts from Light Pollution Handbook


         Target audience: “those responsible for design, installation, and maintenance of outdoor lighting installations” and public spaces.

         “Emphasis on light pollution that interferes with astronomical observations.”

         “an engineering approach…practical and economic solutions for problems stated in science terms.”

         Ch.1-7 General interest and recommendations for decision makers, especially for public space.

         Ch. 8+ is “science and engineering elaboration” for managers, designers, installers.

         Authors from Japan and Netherlands

         Not in book: light scatter in atmosphere; technological details of lighting design; legislation and regulations

         Seek compromise


Ch. 1: Preamble

1       Avoid the light, or reduce the disturbance

6       Regarding philosophy of night: “The conservation of the starry night is essential for the development of human consciousness.”

11     Not a rant—recognizes “the unambiguous positive effects of high-quality outdoor lighting.

12     See bullet items—a long haul approach.  

16    Energy chain illustrates how only about 1% of initial energy makes it from generator to roadway reflection.  


Ch. 2: Aim and purpose of outdoor lighting

53     The 168 hour economy


Ch. 3: What is light pollution?

61     Practical minimum of the natural background radiation is ~21.6 magnitude per square arcsecond (3.52 x 10-4 cd/m2).          [SQM]

66     “If humanity loses contact with the cosmos, it may lose contact with some of its most profound spiritual fundaments.”

68     Yarger Observatory an ALCoR 1 facility (p.71) and an E2 district (p. 71)  [AstroCamp]           

69     Refutes widely cited data, such as price tag of wasted light—or at least acknowledges some of the so-called “wasted” energy is unavoidable:  “calculations over-estimate energy loss,” with particular reference to Crawford’s estimate of “loss.”

69+   Connects light pollution to air pollution—combat both.

71     Distant visible luminaries, though glare, do not impinge on astronomical observatories—tis purely aesthetic (see 9.1.7d)


Ch. 4: Adverse effects of light pollution

86+   Specific recommendations (excerpts and quotes) for L.P. advocates, including “custom-made solutions” (p. 87) from Netherlands conference.

93     Influence of light (on plants) is well known, but not influence of light pollution (on plants);

         CAVEAT: many authors base their work on the same few sources.

95     Insects sensitive toward blue light; hence, mercury vapor are band and high pressure sodium good; non-cutoff lights attract 12 times as many insects as cutoff, per one story (good for predators, though)

106   In Netherlands , only 4% deemed outdoor lighting to be a nuisance.

107   “The main subject of this book—the restriction of light pollution,” yet it delves into…addiction


Ch. 5: Light pollution and astronomy

118   “The number of measurements and their quality, however, seems rather meager in view of the importance to restrict light pollution for optical astronomy.”

130   “It would be better if one could use the actual, direct measurements of the ‘light distribution’ of cities or of other large outdoor lighting installations…a matter that deserves further attention.”  [PLATO: See opening paragraph on p. 131 re: need for study]


Ch. 6: Limiting values for light pollution


Ch. 7: Recommendations

159+ Use most efficient source, low pressure sodium, where amenity and crime considerations are not a factor for traffic lighting; color rending is not important (however, see p. 208, 1); [Gumwood]


Ch. 8: Vision and visibility

196   After seemingly erroneous calculations are given: “We give it here only to be aware of experts!”  Similarly, “references given are not exactly right” (p.226).


Ch. 9: Visual performance, task performance

253   The IAU suggestion to restrict artificial airglow stray light to not more than 10% of the natural background is more stringent than necessary.  Authors suggest there is room to give.

254   “Observers will ‘see’ what they expect.”

255   “The role of expectancy;”  we expect a silvery full moon, but compared to a wall illuminated by the setting sun, the moon is dark grey.

262   “When a theory is adopted by the scientific establishment, all data are squeezed into it.”

263   “psycho-physics”

271   Visual acuity depends on color of light and color of light was important aspect of road lighting.

         Visual acuity decreases as light source approaches a continuous spectrum (LPS→Incandescent).

272   Less of a controversy now about color but of interest regarding L.P.

273+ Try Pulfrich-pendulum effect with double stars.

274   Visual persistence varies with color.

277   Role of a light’s flicker effect in determining distance between lights, and nee for “continuous line lighting.”

281   Resolution of the small pupil is ~1 degree at 542.5 nm (green-yellow)  [Transit of Venus]

288   Conversion table and light source characteristics; power (W), luminous flux (lumen), intensity (cd).

290   “Luminaires with the strictest possible cut-ff will still be quite conspicuous…for the visual system is so sensitive.”  However, visibility does not imply a detrimental effect—the ugliness is less “light pollution” and more “horizon pollution,” akin to high rises and power lines on the horizon.  Hence, since not affecting observations, horizon pollution is strictly and aesthetic effect.

293   History lessons, e.g., Hipparchus classification; “traditional” limiting magnitude for stars is 6.0, taken from Almagest.

294   Explains why color of stars is hard to discern.

295   Glare: absolute/blinding; disability; discomfort.
Sunglasses may reduce eye-strain, but also reduces visual performance (so no tinted windshields)

296   Disability glare or “physiological glare”… “field of view contains strong light” in the direction of the object viewed.  “The light from the glare source is scattered within the ocular media when it strikes the eye.  It causes a light veil that seems to stretch over the complete field of view.”
The effect from different sources is additive.
”The veil influences the contrast in the field of view.”

297   If object and glare source are both seen outside fovea, axial symmetry does not apply.”

298   Two routes: 1. environmentalist—reduce glare at the source, making the installation less glaring;  2. industry—“if contrasts become smaller by glare, increase the adaptation luminance so that the threshold contrasts are lower” (industry doesn’t have to adjust lighting equipment; can sell more equipment to get increased luminance).  Authors suggest tide has turned to environmentalist favor.

299   “Eye media become turbid with increasing age; glare increases with age because of steep increase of cataract with age.”

301   (In theory) to counteract disability glare, increase the contrast just as much as the contrast is decreased by the glare.  (In theory) a loss of contrast can be compensated by an increase in adaptation level.

307   In conclusion, full cutoff road lighting installation…reduces light pollution and disability glare and “would require much less additional road surface luminance as compared to normal cutoff or semi-cutoff.”  --yields “considerable economic advantage.”

308   Discomfort glare is psychological—it disturbs, but it does not cause decrease in visual performance.

309   Can have high discomfort glare with low disability glare, or high disability glare with low discomfort glare.  Thus, reducing discomfort glare in poorly lit street may increase hazard, especially for pedestrians.

312   Discomfort glare is measured by an ordinal scale, where a number is given to the “glare experience.”  Can’t distinguish difference between levels—they just exist without mathematical actions.

313   Minimal studies on discomfort glare and aging (though see disability glare and aging).

314   “One may accustomed to discomfort glare, but never to disability glare.”

317   Discomfort glare exists, but can be considered in design; however, its lack of fixed, numerical criteria makes it too hard to quantify. 
Recommendation: “Restrict the design method to the assessment of disability glare.”


Ch. 10: Fundaments of visual and behavioural functions

328   “Only then, while taking the non-rational considerations of the human spirit into account, do we have a chance to be clear about what really goes on, when people are bothered by light pollution.” 
[Earlier..] “Language provides a means to ‘rationalize away’ the conscience.”

329   “Not all things said by The Masters make sense.”   J

331   Describes science, a view about “the nature of natural science…”

332   In dissing claims of an “ultimate” theory, author hopes it’s at least sufficient enough to solve most practical physical and engineering problems.

332+ Phenomenology—Think whatever.  The truth is that outer world which is perceived by senses.  And even then you’re lucky.  “Sensory processes are fraught with errors and therefore the results of sensory perceptions must be treated with the greatest care.”

333   Tutorial on models. 

334   “Models are not ‘correct’ or ‘wrong’…Clever models work, dumb ones don’t.”
Use most suitable model.
Models rely on experiments [think: fraughtful senses], so support is “adequate” or “acceptable.”
Model may need to change.

336+ A four-level model of consciousness.

346   In detail they “study the role of human instinctive behavior on aggression: for its role in street violence and the subsequent need for road lighting.

355   Disses studies “by researchers who have no preceding knowledge about psychology,” who lump all criminals and tally all crimes.

373   Ch. 10 continues at length: intuition, conscience, “ratio”

374   Ten Commandments cited

379   “discussed in considerable detail the structure and function of the human consciousness…(for) human activities are the outcome of a decision making process.”

391   Human visual system can perform 2-3 fixations per second and detect 3-6 objects per fixation…; each sequence of two or more scenes in 3 seconds has o more than 18-54 visual elements—not all are critical.

394   “Vehicle lighting is not sufficient for the detection of all visually critical elements.”  The reach of the low beam head lamps are not sufficient to provide ample lighting” when considering highway speeds, preview (reaction) times, and beam reach.  “Driving at those speeds requires additional information, like overhead road lighting…:

398   While a formula may set up “warrants” for road safety measures, “some of the ‘functions’ defined…cannot be quantified…leaves room for ‘gut feelings’ and political judgments.”
More common is to use cost-benefit analysis.

404   Risk homeostasis (improve the safety, countered by higher risk-taking)—not tested seriously.  This book will only treat the positive net effect.

415   The values listed for the required foresight (for stationary objects, for overtaking and for emergency maneuvers), are typically very much too short.  Much information cited is dangerously misleading.             


Ch. 11: Technology and light-techniques     

437   Incandescent—lamp temperature has little influence on lamp efficiency
Mercury and sodium—“vapor pressure must be kept within narrow limits”…and “pressure depends heavily on temperature.”
”Halogen lamps require a specific…bulb temperature for optimum operation and lamp life.” 
”One of the most difficult aspects of lamp design is to keep the temperature in the right range.”

438   Low-pressure sodium—nearly pure monochromatic light (therefore, suitable for outdoor and near observatories).
High-pressure sodium—spectrum approaches most colors (therefore, suitable for general outdoor lighting purposes)”

442   LEDs—instead of a few thousand hours, a life of 1-200,00 hours (11-23 years);
-though output drops to 90% @ 10,00 hours and to 70% @ 100,000 hours
-one tenth the energy consumption for a 7W LED array (vs. incandescent)
-small dimensions (5-15 cm down to a few mm)
-somewhat inferior color rendition

445   Compared to indoor lighting, with outdoor “the contrast of the luminance, or the brightness between the lit and unlit surfaces, is much stronger…particularly with low lighting levels.”

446   “Emphasized that any unscientific attempt intending to eliminate the light pollution without proper technical knowledge or engineering experience, may lead to unexpected adverse results or sometimes serious economic loss.”

447   “Most common surfaces in the outdoors have a reflection factor less than about 25%.”  Emphasis on concrete.
-Avoid overlighting (consider “maintenance factor in design stage”)
-Avoid colors of high reflection…use finish on façade that is “non-specular and has a low reflection factor.”
-Shield, including with bushes.

449   Maintenance factor: ration between lowest light levels (when dirty, old) and those at the installation or replacement/cleaning.

450   “By using a dimming installation, over-lighting can be avoided, while still a long group replacement [change-them-all-at-once] can be selected.”

452   A town’s systematic street lighting “should not leave any short stretch poorly lit” for it aids the dark-adapted criminal.   [Note: The preceding page of criminal scenarios and conclusions is one area where the authors have not backed up their assertions with abundant references.]

452   Authors continually correlate street lighting with crime prevention.

462   Efficiency—ratio of energy converted to visible radiation to the total energy consumed (%)

463   Efficacy—ratio of luminous flux in lumens (lm) to total energy in watts (W), or lm/W; 
 lm/W, dimensionless because both represent work, is more convenient than the “percent” expression of efficiency.

466+ Begins list of features—pros and cons—of lamp types.

476   Luminaires “breath” in moisture and dust, thus degrading over time.

476+ Function of ballast—acts as impedance; transformer; stabilizer; frequency converter for gas discharge lamps.

479   “Optical controls for a large-sized lamp is not efficient in comparison with that for a small lamp.”

482   “Many globe lights have an ULR of over 50%!”
See central paragraph on p. 482.
”…It is possible to design a luminaire with a high efficacy at the same time a good light control.  The performance of a luminaire must not be judged by its daytime appearance, but by technical data concerning light distribution.”

483   Now “vintage” luminaries have tow bulbs—one 8 watt compact fluorescent for appearance and one hidden that provides the needed illumination

486   “…The cover glass not being exactly horizontal is one of the major contributing factors of the light pollution.”   (large scale installations)

493   High mast installations produce low light pollution…

494   “High mast solution results in far less light pollution.”

500   “…Even the modern discharge lamps have electric efficiency, excluding the energy loss of the ballast is only about 3 times that of incandescent lamps, despite the fact that the luminous flux, in lumens, generated by the modern high-pressure lamps is about 8 times that of an incandescent lamp of the same wattage…” because “the sensitivity of human retina depends on wavelength of incoming radiation.”  (Sensitivity to high pressure is greater than incandescent.)

         Luminous flux is measured with a device with a spectral sensitivity corresponding to that of the eye for visible radiation.

501   “The real amount of the electric energy required for the operation of a discharge lamp is the sum of the energy consumed by the ballast, dimming device and the lamp itself.”  In many cases, the consumption of electric energy by the ballast and by dimming devices is given in the separate parts of the product catalogues of lamp manufacturers.

502   The OLOR does not indicate energy efficiency.

503   Upward Light Ratio (ULR)—the proportion of the output luminous flux…of a luminaire and/or an installation emitted at or above the horizon, when luminaries are mounted in their installed position.  (This is the practical value, unlike the ULOR of standard test conditions.)  “ULR can only be assessed by measurements in the field.”

505   The utilization factor (the proportion of the lamp luminous flux that reaches the area to be lit) is one of the most important parameters concerning the efficiency of any lighting installation.

507   Surprisingly, to me, “CIE-based designs are always based on the requirements of the ‘user’ of the installation…Aspects of light pollution are not taken into account.”
(Describes systematic approach:  Determine zone, then the limiting ULR.   “…current assessment systems are available.” 
”More a matter of improving priorities, rather than of inventing clever new tools!”

509   The determination of the average road surface luminance is the cornerstone of the road lighting design.  The traditional method does not include other parameters as well, more in particular the restriction of disability glare and the non-uniformity of the luminance pattern.”

         “However, visual guidance, followed by the non-uniformity are the most important design parameters.  There are, however, no lighting design methods, based on the driving task concepts.”

510   “Illuminance-based design is still the only practical design method…for roundabouts.”  Gumwood]

512   “Road lighting is purely functional.  This means road lighting must never be considered as a luxury, nor as an aesthetic feature, like many outdoor lighting systems…when dealing with city beautification.”

513   (Outline of the steps for road lighting with specific examples and criteria and parameters.)

524   New approach to road lighting based on (author) Narisada’s research; “minimize the waste on the luminous flux and on the electric energy for road lighting, while keeping or improving the visibility conditions.”

525   Problem with present CEI system: “To maintain the relevant lighting parameter in a (CEI) recommended range, the designers have, in most cases, to select a lamp whose luminous flux is greater than the calculated value.”  That is, they ramp up light to cover all bases (and their rears).
Author proposes dimming; trade offs between parameters; “synthesized lighting quality.”

539   Three factors “have a remarkable influence on the Area Ratio or the potential visibility: 1. the average road surface luminance, 2. the luminaire arrangements, 3. the mounting height…The spacing-to-height ratio when smaller than 3.5 as well as the overall uniformity have a minor influence.”

         Recommended criteria: the percentage of the Area Ratio for different categories of road.


Ch. 12: Effects of outdoor lighting on society and on the environment

548   Paragraphs note extensive research done regarding the relation between lighting and crime and lighting and accidents.  However, it is tinted by the commercial interests of the research parties and in the reporting.  Severe methodological flaws are so severe it’s difficult to estimate the significance of such studies.  Two parties at fault: astronomical community and the lighting and energy communities.  Landmark (oft quoted) or seminal studies are themselves flawed.

550   “The solution (to the controversy) is, of course, to do better research…”
”Astronomers and lighting engineers (need) to respect each other, rather than fight each other.”

553   “The samples we may get when studying road lighting are usually not big enough.”

554   Statistical analysis gives correlations, not causal relations (regarding accidents).

         People who are not accustomed to think in terms of psychology…dump all crimes and all criminals in a heap, a major source of error.  For some, light is a deterrent; for others it’s not.”

558   “Lesson to be learned…It is much more effective to stress that there are many technical and organizational ways to reduce light pollution…One reason is that…pollution restrictions offer many possibilities for technical innovation and commercial development.”

562+ Applying the meta-analysis approach, in which material (studies) is scored with a ‘figure of merit’ and results weighed by merit…   1.  Good road lighting reduces nighttime casualties (about 30%),
2. Increasing light level decreases accident risk (double the luminance leads to ~13% reduction).

565+ Continues to question the conclusions of Clark ’s studies (and Tien’s on p.568), though well-intentioned.

567   “A major problem is that almost all studies are little more than opinions and anecdotes: systematic, well designed quantitative research is almost completely lacking.  It is therefore difficult to justify on a cost/effectiveness basis the expenditure for crime prevention lighting.”

568   Tien et all (1977) study, oft quoted as suggesting lighting is not an effective crime countermeasure, is not a sound conclusion.  “Tien had negative effect on the motivation to do any further research.”

570   Most research was “before-and-after” type.  Better alternative is relation studies.  [PLATO]

573   There is a danger of circular reasoning…the thing one looks for in the results are just the things one has introduced in the data collection.”  One way out is never to try to confirm a hypothesis, only to falsify it.

576   “Often, improving road lighting helps to prevent crime and to reduce crime rates.  More important still, almost always an improvement in the psychological aspects were reported.”

577   “Results, however, are somewhat ambiguous.”

610   City beautification …makes life enjoyable and not just liveable.  It is not a luxury, however.  Human creativity, human dignity requires a set of conditions that are more than just the necessities.

611   Crime studies made it clear that good lighting improves the atmosphere and reduces crime, vandalism, etc.  (Painer, 199, Schreuder, 2000).”
Dilemma: “Good lighting attracts criminally inclined individuals, particularly male juvenile delinquents…The answer is not to decrease the lighting…The answer is in the first place to make the lighting installation itself and all the other city beautification elements vandal-proof, as they are likely to be the first elements to be vandalized or destroyed.”

614   Cutoff—or coupure—of vehicle headlights

622   HID-lamps have higher efficacy (up to 85 lm/W) than halogen (20-25 lm/W); (halogen are essentially tungsten filaments)

623   Per study, “For the same luminous intensity, high pressure gas discharge (HID) lamps caused a higher degree of discomfort, as compared to sealed beam lamps.  Furthermore, the discomfort in the field test was greater than predicted from laboratory tests.”
”The small headlights for HID-lamps are brighter than those for the standard size filament or halogen lamps.”
”There was a correlation between age and disability glare.”
”The propose light distribution from the low beams when HID lamps are used, is higher than the current ECE standards for virtually all points of measurement…and should be better adapted to the needs of vulnerable road users.”

626   “Total luminous flux emitted by HID lamps is so high that polarized light may become a workable proposition.” 

628   It would benefit road safety, but not reduce light pollution.

629   “Most countries are stuck with headlighting systems that do not fit their national or regional characteristics at all.” 
[Split between European and U.S. standards, yet German engineering emerging.]
United Nations ECE standards discussed.

633   Collisions with loose objects on or near the road represent less than 1% of the total injury accidents, yet these objects represent the ‘standard object’ of road tests.
The light veil of glare reduces contrast and “stretches over the complete field of view.”

634   Disability glare, “the outstanding problem in nighttime road traffic…increased very clearly with each step in the further development of vehicle headlighting systems.”

635   All of these headlight regulations are “based on ‘type testing’…that depends on the test result of small sample, that sometimes consists of only one item.  Obviously, this almost invites the provider to select the best possible item for the test.”  For some regulations, “the provider must declare that the complete production is in agreement with the test items.”

636   “Formally, headlighting systems are vehicle parts, and not parts of a vehicle.  Thus, they are tested separately…and fall outside the regulations.”

640   Light pollution contributed by headlights is significant, particularly in sparsely populated areas.

646   Begins tutorial on cost-benefit ratio analysis

652   Concludes that “increasing the light level on urban roads is a cost-effective accident reduction measure.”

658   Specular reflectors, or mirrors, are used most frequently.  Aluminum (high reflectivity) is vulnerable, because weak, so it requires frame to hold its shape.  However, this allows them to be bent purposely for better light control (especially suitable for metal halide and HPS lamps and for “high class lighting installations,” like stadiums and squares).  Too complicated for ordinary road use.

         Anodized aluminum luminaries must be enclosed with transparent cover.

659   Stainless steel reflection is low; heats up; “not easily ‘workable’”; but sturdy housing holds shape, so can be open with no cover.  Housing serves as reflector.

662   Illuminance of open luminaries would be significantly higher over 6 years than that of a low-quality closed luminaire.

666   For optimal adjustment, one needs clear, transparent cover, not refractor luminaire.

668   Regarding the “flat glass controversy…any shape other than flat glass will result in some light emitted upwards, directly from the luminaire.”

668   Regarding misunderstanding that direct light exceeds reflected light: “Concentrated light sources, like street lighting luminaries, are highly conspicuous to the dark adapted eye, even if their actual luminous intensity is modest.”

673+ Compares luminaries with different cover shapes.  Notably, flat glass consumes 34% more energy than most efficient one in study.

677   “The difference between different cover shapes is marginal.”  As expected, flat-glass covers perform slightly higher and the upward flux is slightly lower, and the “reach” is slightly lower.  “These differences can be neglected in practice.”

678   With different cover shapes, “there may be considerable differences as regards the split-up between the direct and the indirect—or reflected—component of the upward flux…The shape of the cover of the luminaire has some influence on the performance of the installation, as well as on the total upward flux, but statements that have some general validity cannot be made.”


Ch. 13: Environmental aspects of light pollution
introduces global warming, greenhouse effect, solar power.

720   In the Netherlands , “about 10% of all energy is electric energy, and that about 0.8% of all electric energy is used for public lighting—or about 0.08% of all energy.

         (From p. 742...) Though only a small fraction of the total energy consumption,  “the amounts are staggering when looked at in absolute terms.”

740      Turin/Treviso, Italy , numbers suggest “luminaires with prismatic a bowl and with HPS lamps provide the most cost-effective lighting.  The use of flat glass luminaries would lead to an increase of between 20% and 30% in energy use…The improvement in the visibility of stars would be not more than only 0.15 magnitudes.”


Ch. 14: Photometry

         Includes conversion tables

755+ “Visual conditions under which cones are active [bright] are called the conditions of photopic vision.” Rods [dark] are scotopic vision.  Between is mesopic vision. 

757   1 Watt=683 lumens [qualified]   
”…Not possible to construct light source that produces more than 683 lumens per watt.” (p.758)

         Luminous flux is the “energy flux weighted according to the spectral luminous efficiency curve for the human photopic visual system.”  This amount of light is in units of watts; accumulated amount is exposure, the product of illuminance and time.

[Note: major sections of Ch. 14 are skipped here.]

852   “Photometry is a specialized profession, that requires skill, good equipment, and a very large dose of experience.  There are many things that can go wrong; there are many pitfalls.”  [PLATO]

859   “The level of the sky glow, even at the same location, is not a constant in time:
-it changes with time, not only throughout the night, but also seasonally and with the solar cycle;
-it changes with haze level—meteorological visibility--, a.o. as a result of changes in water content in the air;
-it varies with altitude and azimuth
-it is a non-constant function of wavelength
-the actual values may also depend upon the way of assessment.”

360   Area Surveys
-Limiting star magnitude method
-Star counting
-Photographic surveys


Ch. 15:  Public Aspects

881   Eloquent paragraphs regarding astronomy as an endangered science, based on paper by Paul Murdin.

882   “A major goal of this book…is to create mutual respect between the two professions…” of astronomers and lighting engineers.

884   Per Sperling, “Astronomers most often succeed when they exercise personal connections with government officials—a very depressing conclusion for societies so proud of their democracies.”  Hence, “political pressure not the best means to find any long term improvement in the light pollution situation.”  Instead→education/outreach.

886   Reward desirable behavior as opposed to punishing undesirable behavior.

887   Dearly missed are simple short primers on the subjects of astronomy, outdoor lighting, and light pollution…Need to have a standard high enough for secondary schools, for college level courses, for astronomers, engineers, and public decision makers.”

893   From Isobe et al (2000), DMSP-satellite data indicates energy emitted upward (in kWh/km2), which can be compared to preceding years.
”Cynical remarks, that politicians are only interested in being re-elected, that astronomers are only interested in the tenure at their university, and that lighting engineers are only interested in maximum profits, are not helpful, even if they are, to some extent, not far beside the truth.”

897   “It is often felt that a lack of awareness, rather than specific resistance, is generally the biggest problem in controlling light pollution.”

899   A Light Pollution Act should embrace the concept of annoyance, as opposed to nuisance.

912   Scheme for local lighting ordinance. 









Copyright ©2009 Chuck Bueter.  All rights reserved.